Orban 8700i Optimod-FM FM/HD Audio Processor w/Dante AoIP and AES67

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In the toughest competitive environment ever, a winning strategy includes OPTIMOD-FM 8700i.
OPTIMOD-FM 8700i is Orban's flagship processor. Featuring versatile five-band and two-band processing for both analog FM transmission and digital media, the 8700i provides the industry's most consistent sound, track-to-track and source-to-source. This consistency allows you to create a sonic signature for your station with the assurance that your signature will stay locked in, uniquely branding your sound.

The 8700i builds on 8600 V4’s outstanding reliability and industry-leading sound quality. It adds Ravenna audio-over-IP connectivity (100% AES67 compliant) and a hot-swappable, dual-redundant power supply with automatic failover. A digital MPX output using a 192 kHz AES3 connection is now standard, as are two digitized SCA inputs. A new program-adaptive subharmonic synthesizer ensures punchy bass, even with older program material. An important feature is a phase skew corrector/multipath mitigator that ensures crisp reception when receivers blend to mono and minimizes energy in the stereo subchannel without compromising separation. The phase skew corrector uses a proprietary multidimensional processing algorithm that can simultaneously correct multiple phase problems, like a combination of analog tape gap skew and comb filtering caused by multiple-microphone pickup of a single instrument in the original recording session.

Orban’s exclusive MX peak limiter technology decreases distortion while increasing transient punch and high frequency power handling capacity. Compared to the 8500’s limiter, the MX limiter typically provides 2.5 to 3 dB more power at high frequencies, which minimizes audible HF loss caused by pre-emphasis limiting. Drums and percussion cut through the mix. Highs are airy. “Problem material” that used to cause audible distortion is handled cleanly.

The 8700i’s main goal is to make FM analog broadcasts more competitive with the cleanliness, punch, and open high frequencies of the digital media against which FM analog transmissions now battle. The FM loudness wars represent 20th-century thinking; in the 21st century, the new competition is digital media. Thanks to its crisp, punchy sound, the 8700i helps level the playing field between analog FM and its ever more aggressive digital-only competitors. The 8700i offers 8500-style processing presets too. Because the input/output delay of the MX peak limiter is too long to permit talent to monitor off-air on headphones, 8500-style is useful for remotes and outside broadcasts where off-air headphone monitoring is desired and the 8700i’s low-delay monitor output cannot be brought to the talent.

In addition to subharmonic synthesis and phase skew correction , the 8700i provides stereo enhancement, HF enhancement, equalization, AGC, multiband compression, low-IM peak limiting, stereo encoding, and composite limiting - everything that even the most competitive major market station needs to stand out on the dial.

Processing for digital media like DAB+, netcasts and HD Radio™ is supplied standard. The FM and digital media processing paths split after the 8700i’s stereo enhancer and AGC. There are two equalizers, multiband compressors and peak limiters, allowing the analog FM and digital media processing to be optimized separately. The bottom line? Processing that optimizes the sound of your FM channel while punching remarkably crisp, clean, CD-like audio through to your digital channel audience.

More than 20 excellent sounding, format specific factory presets get you started. You’ll find all of your favorite 8500 presets, plus “MX” presets designed by Bob Orban to exploit the exciting possibilities inherent in the 8700i’s MX peak limiter technology. Although the factory presets are fully competent “out of the box,” you can customize them with easy one-knob LESS- MORE control or with more than 60 advanced controls whose versatility will satisfy even the most finicky on-air sound designer.

If you choose to use the 8700i’s superb DSP-based stereo encoder and composite limiter, be assured that they deliver an FM analog signal that is always immaculately clean and perfectly peak limited, with full spectral protection of subcarriers and RDS/RBDS regardless of the amount of composite limiting. A full-featured RDS/RBDS generator that supports dynamic PS is standard.

The 8700i includes ITU-R BS.1770-3 loudness meters and loudness controllers for use in countries that enforce a BS.1770 loudness limit on FM radio broadcasts. There are independent loudness meters and loudness controllers for the FM and digital radio processing chains.

User-Friendly Interface

Large (quarter-VGA) active-matrix color liquid crystal display (LCD) Makes setup, adjustment and programming of the 8700i easy. Navigation is by a miniature joystick, two dedicated buttons and a large rotary knob. The LCD shows all metering functions of the processing structure in use.

Locate joystick Used to navigate through a menu that lets you recall a preset, modify processing (at three levels of expertise), or to access the system's setup controls.

Absolute Control of Peak Modulation

Universal transmitter protection & audio processing for FM broadcast The 8700i provides universal transmitter protection and audio processing for FM broadcast. It can be configured to interface ideally with any commonly found transmission system in the world, analog or digital.

Pre-emphasis limiting The 8700i provides pre-emphasis limiting for the internationally used pre-emphasis curves of 50 µs and 75 µs. Compared to its predecessor, its new clipping/pre-emphasis-control technology preserves 2.5 to 3 dB more frequency energy while significantly reducing audible clipping distortion at all frequencies. This produces a clean, open sound whose subjective brightness more closely matches the original program.

Tight peak control at all its outputs The 8700i achieves extremely tight peak control at all its outputs — analog, AES3 (for both the analog FM and HD channels) and composite baseband.

Stereo encoder integrated with audio processing Eliminates the overshoot problems that waste valuable modulation in traditional external encoders.

Two outputs The stereo encoder has two outputs with independent level controls, each capable of driving 75 Ω in parallel with 47,000 pF, (100 ft / 30 m of coaxial cable).

Stereo encoder By integrating the stereo encoder with the audio processing, the 8700i eliminates the overshoot problems that waste valuable modulation in traditional external encoders.

Bandwidth limiting & overshoot compensation The 8700i prevents aliasing distortion in subsequent stereo encoders or transmission links by providing bandwidth limiting and overshoot compensated 15 kHz low-pass filters ahead of the 8700i's audio outputs and stereo encoder.

Internal DSP-based stereo encoder The 8700i has an internal, DSP-based stereo encoder (with a patented “half-cosine interpolation” composite limiter operating at 512 kHz sample rate) to generate the pilot tone stereo baseband signal and control its peak level. The composite limiter is a unique, "you can only do this in DSP" process that beats composite clippers by preserving stereo imaging while fully protecting the stereo pilot tone, RDS/RBDS and subcarriers.

Loudness and True Peak Control The digital radio and analog FM processing chains each include an ITU-R BS.1770-3 Loudness Meter and Loudness Controller for use in countries that enforce a BS.1770 loudness limit on digital radio broadcasts.

The 8700iHD implements “true peak” control in the HD processing chain by oversampling the HD peak limiter's sidechain at 256 kHz. This allows the 8700i to prevent clipping in a playback device's analog signal path by predicting and controlling the analog peak level following the playback device's reconstruction filter to an accuracy of better than 0.5 dB. For typical program material, accuracy is 0.2 dB.

Flexible Configuration

Digital MPX
A 192 kHz AES3 digital composite output that is compatible and interoperable with the 192 kHz standard being implemented by several transmitter manufacturers. These implantations use the left audio channel of the AES3 connection to carry the baseband, but their 96 kHz Nyquist frequency makes them unable to convey 92 kHz SCAs without aliasing. Orban’s fully backward-compatible implementation extends the standard by using the right audio channel of the link to provide bandwidth extension that accommodates the full 0-99 kHz baseband when used with hardware designed to use this extra information.

Two additional SCA inputs that are digitized and can be summed into the digital composite outputs.

A 10 MHz reference input allows the stereo pilot tone frequency and digital composite output sample rate to be locked to a 10 MHz reference signal (like GPS), facilitating single-frequency-network operation.

Analog & AES3 left/right digital inputs & outputs
OPTIMOD-FM 8700i is supplied with analog and AES3 digital inputs and outputs. The digital input and the two digital outputs are equipped with sample rate converters. The pre-emphasis status and output levels are separately adjustable for the analog and digital outputs. Each output can emit the analog FM processed signal, the analog FM processed signal with diversity delay applied, the digital radio processed signal or the low-delay monitor signal.

A loop-through connection (from the AES#2 output to the AES sync input) is provided to enable a ratings encoder (such as Arbitron®) to be inserted after the AGC, or between the output of the audio processing and the input to the stereo encoder.

Dante™ Audio-Over-IP Connectivity
100% AES67 compliant, Dante uses a dedicated Ethernet connection for two stereo audio inputs and two stereo outputs, each with a dedicated level control. Sample rate conversion is provided for both the inputs and the outputs. AES67 compliance allows the 8700i to interoperate with many other devices, and more and more proprietary networks and networked devices are being upgraded by their manufacturers to support AES67 connectivity.

Defeatable diversity delay
A defeatable diversity delay can delay the FM analog processing output up to 16.2 seconds. Delay can be trimmed in intervals of one sample of 64 kHz to match the analog and digital paths in the HD Radio system, eliminating the need to use the delay built into the HD Radio exciter and permitting the 8700i's internal stereo encoder and composite limiter to drive the analog FM exciter. Both the 8700i and 8700iFM offer this feature, making it convenient to use the 8700iFM in dual-processor HD installations where the digital channel receives independent processing from a processor like Orban's OPTIMOD 6300 or OPTIMOD-PC. Each output (Analog, Digital 1, Digital 2, Composite, and Dante) can be independently configured to emit the delayed or undelayed signal.

AES11 sync input
An AES11 sync input allows you to synchronize the output sample rate of either (or both) AES3 outputs to this input. You can also synchronize the outputs to the AES3 digital input or to 8700i's internal clock. The sync source of each AES3 output is independently selectable.

Transformerless, balanced 10 kΩ instrumentation-amplifier circuits
The analog inputs are transformerless, balanced 10 kΩ instrumentation-amplifier circuits.
The analog outputs are transformerless balanced and floating (with 50 Ω impedance) to ensure highest transparency and accurate pulse response.

Two independent analog composite baseband outputs
The 8700i has two independent composite baseband outputs with digitally programmable output levels. Robust line drivers enable them to drive 100 feet of RG59 coaxial cable without audible performance degradation.

Two analog subcarrier inputs
The 8700i's two subcarrier inputs are mixed with the output of the 8700i's stereo encoder before application to the composite output connectors. One input can be re-jumpered to provide a 19 kHz pilot reference output. Both inputs have internal level trims to accommodate subcarrier generators with output levels as low as 220 mV.

Precise control of the audio bandwidth
The 8700i precisely controls the audio bandwidth of its analog FM processing to 16.5 kHz. This prevents significant overshoots in uncompressed digital links operating at a 44.1 kHz-sample rate or higher and prevents interference to the pilot tone and RDS (or RBDS) subcarrier. The bandwidth of the 8700i's digital radio output is adjustable in 1 kHz increments between 15 kHz and 20 kHz.

Defeatable multiplex power limiter
The 8700i has a defeatable multiplex power limiter that controls the multiplex power to ITU-R BS412 standards. An adjustable threshold allows a station to achieve maximum legal multiplex power even if the downstream transmission system introduces peak overshoots into the 8700i-processed signal. Because this limiter closes a feedback loop around the audio processing, it allows the user to adjust the processor's subjective setup controls freely without violating BS412 limits, regardless of program material.

The multiplex power limiter acts on all outputs (not just the composite output). In its most common configuration, it reduces clipper drive when it reduces power, simultaneously reducing clipping distortion. However, to accommodate customers who wish to use heavier clipping to achieve a certain sound, the MPX power controller can be configured to reduce gain after the clippers.

Single Sideband
Because of broadcaster interest in this topic, we have implemented an experimental compatible single sideband/vestigial sideband mode in the 8700i's stereo encoder. SSB/VSB operation suppresses the upper sideband of the stereo subcarrier above 38,150 Hz, which reduces the occupied bandwidth of the FM-modulated RF signal. In SSB/VBS mode, the subchannel modulator acts as a pure SSB generator for L-R material in the frequency range of 150 Hz to 17 kHz and as a vestigial sideband generator below 150 Hz.

RFI-suppressed connections
All input, output and power connections are rigorously RFI-suppressed to Orban's traditional exacting standards, ensuring trouble-free installation.

International safety and emissions standards
The 8700i is designed and certified to meet all applicable international safety and emissions standards.

Adaptability through Multiple Audio Processing Structures

Processing structure
A processing structure is a program that operates as a complete audio processing system. Only one processing structure can be on-air at a time, although all are active simultaneously to permit mute-free switching between them. The 8700i realizes its processing structures as a series of high-speed mathematical computations made by Digital Signal Processing (DSP) chips. By minimizing coupling between the control microprocessor and the DSP hardware, this architecture achieves outstanding reliability.

Six processing structures
The 8700i features six processing structures. Four of these are the same as OPTIMOD-FM 8500: Five-Band (or “Multiband”) for a consistent, "processed" sound with 17 ms delay (typical), Low-Latency Five-Band (12 ms delay), Ultra-Low-Latency Five-Band (3.7 ms delay) and Two-Band (17 or 22 ms delay) for a transparent sound that preserves the frequency balance of the original program material. A special Two-Band preset creates a no-compromise "Protect" function that is functionally similar to the “Protect” structures in earlier Orban digital processors.

Two "MX" structures
The 8700i's two new "MX" structures (five-band and two-band) are similar to their 8500 counterparts except that they use the 8700i's MX peak limiting technology to decrease distortion while achieving substantial improvements in transient punch and high frequency clarity. This advanced technology requires more input-to-output delay than the older structures, so it is impractical for talent to monitor these structures off-air with headphones. The 8700i offers a special low-delay monitor output for this purpose.

The 8700i's Two-Band processing structures can be made phase-linear to maximize audible transparency.

Rides gain
The 8700i rides gain over an adjustable range of up to 25 dB, compressing dynamic range and compensating for both operator gain-riding errors and gain inconsistencies in automated systems.

Increase density and loudness
The 8700i can increase the density and loudness of the program material by multiband compression, limiting and clipping — improving the consistency of the station's sound and increasing loudness and definition remarkably, without producing unpleasant side effects.


Remote control
The 8700i can be remote-controlled by 5 - 12V pulses applied to eight programmable, optically isolated GPI (general-purpose interface) ports.

Serial port #1
The 8700i is equipped with a serial port to interface to an WIndows® computer running Orban's PC Remote software. The connection can be either direct or through an external modem.

Serial port #2
The 8700i has a second serial port that allows the user to set up security and communications parameters through a simple ASCII terminal program running on any PC.

Built-in 100 Mbps Ethernet port
The 8700i can be connected through its built-in 100 Mbps Ethernet port to a TCP/IP network.

The SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) features allow you to adjust the diversity delay, monitor the 8700i's status, and send Alarm notifications via the 8700i's Ethernet connection to your network.

Telnet client
The 8700i includes a Telnet client that allows presets to be recalled via batch files using the free PuTTY and Plink applications. The commands are simple ASCII strings, facilitating interface to automation systems that can emit such strings through an Ethernet or RS232 serial connection.

PC Remote control software
8700i PC Remote software is a graphical application that runs under Vista, 7, 8, and 10. It communicates with a given 8700i via TCP/IP over modem, direct serial and Ethernet connections. You can configure PC Remote to switch between many 8700is via a convenient organizer that supports giving any 8700i an alias name and grouping multiple 8700is into folders. Clicking an 8700i's icon causes PC Remote to connect to that 8700i through an Ethernet network, or initiates a Windows Dial-Up or Direct Cable Connection if appropriate. The PC Remote software allows the user to access all 8700i features and allows the user to archive and restore presets, automation lists and system setups (containing I/O levels, digital word lengths, GPI functional assignments, etc.).

Bypass Test Mode
A Bypass Test Mode can be invoked locally, by remote control (from the 8700i’s GPI port, its PC Remote application, or ASCII API), or by automation to permit broadcast system test and alignment or “proof of performance” tests.

Built-in line-up tone generator
The 8700i contains a built-in line-up tone generator, facilitating quick and accurate level setting in any system.

Versatile real-time clock
The 8700i contains a versatile real-time clock, which allows automation of various events (including recalling presets) at pre-programmed times. To maintain accuracy, this clock can be automatically synchronized via the Internet to a reference time source.

  • Frequency Response (Bypass Mode; Analog Processing Chain): Follows standard 50µs or 75µs pre-emphasis curve ±0.10 dB, 2.0 Hz - 15 kHz. Analog left/right output and Digital output can be user configured for flat or pre-emphasized output.
  • Sample Rate: 64 kHz to 512 kHz, depending on processing being performed.
  • Noise: Output noise floor will depend upon how much gain the processor is set for (Limit Drive, AGC Drive, Two-Band Drive, and/or Multiband Drive), gating level, equalization, noise reduction, etc. It is primarily governed by the dynamic range of the A/D converter, which has a specified overload-to–noise ratio of 110 dB. The dynamic range of the digital signal processing is 144 dB.
  • Total System Distortion (de-emphasized, 100% modulation): <0.01% THD, 20 Hz - 1 kHz, rising to <0.05% at 15 kHz. <0.02% SMPTE IM Distortion.
  • Total System Separation: > 55 dB, 20 Hz - 15 kHz; 60 dB typical.
  • Polarity (Two-Band and Bypass Modes): Absolute polarity maintained. Positive-going signal on input will result in positive-going signal on output when HD Polarity and FM polarity controls are set to POSITIVE.
  • Peak Control at HD Output: The peak limiter is oversampled at 256 kHz, yielding a worst- case overshoot of 0.5 dB at the analog output and for all output sample rates. (To achieve this performance at 32 kHz output sample rate, it is necessary to set the 8700i’s HD lowpass filter cutoff frequency to 15 kHz.)


  • Delay
    • Defeatable Analog FM Diversity delay: 0.27 to 16.384 seconds, adjustable in one-sample increments at 64 kHz sample rate to allow the delays of the analog and digital paths in the HD Radio system to be matched at the receiver output. The relative delay between the HD and analog FM outputs stay constant regardless of the structure in operation. The delay can be changed via 8700i PC Remote software, via SNMP, and via Telnet-style (terminal control) commands through the serial and Ethernet ports. Several manufacturers make HD Radio monitors that can adjust the 8700i’s diversity delay via terminal control to compensate for changes in HD delay that might occur elsewhere in the transmission system.
    • Minimum Processing Delay: Processing structure dependent. Typically 17 ms for normal latency Five-band, 13 ms for low-latency Five-band, 3.7 ms for ultra-low-latency Five- band, and 17 or 22 ms for 2-band, depending on crossover structure chosen. MX presets have approximately 270 ms delay. The multipath mitigator adds 146 ms of additional delay, and can be bypassed in situations like outside broadcasts where talent needs to monitor off-air.
  • Analog Audio Input
    • Configuration: Stereo.
    • Impedance: > 10kΩ load impedance, electronically balanced1.
    • Nominal Input Level: Software adjustable from –4.0 to +13.0 dBu (VU).
    • Maximum Input Level: +27 dBu.
    • Connectors: Two XLR-type, female, EMI-suppressed. Pin 1 chassis ground, Pins 2 (+) and 3 electronically balanced, floating and symmetrical.
    • A/D Conversion: 24 bit 128x oversampled delta sigma converter with linear-phase anti- aliasing filter.
    • Filtering: RFI filtered, with high-pass filter at 0.15 Hz.
  • Analog Audio Output
    • Configuration: Stereo. The analog output can emit the analog FM processed signal, the digital radio processed signal, or the low-delay monitor signal. The FM processed signal can be flat or pre-emphasized (at 50µs or 75µs), software-selectable.
    • Source Impedance: 50Ω, electronically balanced and floating.
    • Load Impedance: 600Ω or greater, balanced or unbalanced. Termination not required or recommended.
    • Output Level (100% peak modulation): Adjustable from –6 dBu to +24 dBu peak, into 600Ω or greater load, software-adjustable.
    • Signal-to-Noise: > = 90 dB unweighted (Bypass mode, de-emphasized, 20 Hz - 15 kHz bandwidth, referenced to 100% modulation).
    • Crosstalk: <= –70 dB, 20 Hz - 15 kHz.
    • Distortion: <= 0.01% THD (Bypass mode, de-emphasized) 20 Hz - 15 kHz bandwidth.
    • Connectors: Two XLR-type, male, EMI-suppressed. Pin 1 chassis ground, Pins 2 (+) and 3 electronically balanced, floating and symmetrical.
    • D/A Conversion: 24 bit 128x oversampled.
    • Filtering: RFI filtered.
  • Digital Audio Input
    • Configuration: Stereo per AES3 standard, 24 bit resolution, software selection of stereo, mono from left, mono from right or mono from sum.
    • Sampling Rate: 32 kHz, 44.1 kHz, 48 kHz, 88.2 kHz, and 96 kHz automatically selected.
    • Connector: XLR-type, female, EMI-suppressed. Pin 1 chassis ground, pins 2 and 3 transformer balanced and floating, 110Ω impedance.
    • Input Reference Level: Variable within the range of –30 dBFS to –10 dBFS.
    • J.17 De-emphasis: Software-selectable
    • Filtering: RFI filtered.
  • Digital Audio Outputs
    • Configuration: Two outputs, each stereo per the AES3 standard. The outputs can be set independently to emit the analog FM processed signal, the digital radio processed signal, or the low-delay monitor signal. The FM processed signal can be configured in software as flat or pre-emphasized to the chosen processing pre-emphasis (50µs or 75µs). The HD processing chain receives the output of the multiband limiter and processes it through a look-ahead peak limiter that operates in parallel with the main FM peak limiting system. The HD and FM signals are always simultaneously available. Each output can apply J.17 pre-emphasis if desired.
    • Sample Rate: Internal free running at 32 kHz, 44.1 kHz, 48 kHz, 88.2 kHz, or 96 kHz, selected in software. (Use 44.1 kHz or higher for best peak control.) Can also be synced to the AES3 SYNC input or the AES3 digital input at 32 kHz, 44.1 kHz, 48 kHz, 88.2 kHz, and 96 kHz, as configured in software.
    • Word Length: Software selected for 24, 20, 18, 16 or 14-bit resolution. First-order highpass noise-shaped dither can be optionally added, dither level automatically adjusted appropriately for the word length.
    • Connector: XLR-type, male, EMI-suppressed. Pin 1 chassis ground, pins 2 and 3 transformer balanced and floating, 110Ω impedance.
    • Output Level (100% peak modulation): –20.0 to 0.0 dBFS software controlled.
    • Filtering: RFI filtered.
    • Frequency Response (Digital Audio Output driven by HD Processing Chain): For output sample rates of 44.1 kHz and above, the frequency response from input to HD-configured output is ±0.10 dB, 2.0 Hz - 20 kHz; flat or with J.17 pre-emphasis applied. The user may specify lowpass filtering to constrain the bandwidth to 15, 16, 17, 18, or 19 kHz.
  • Ravenna Audio-Over-IP I/O
    • Compatibility: 100% AES67-compliant.
    • Configuration: Two L/R stereo inputs and two L/R stereo outputs. The outputs have the same configuration options as the AES3 outputs (above) except for the sample rate.
    • Sample Rate: Inputs and outputs support 44.1 kHz, 48 kHz, 88.2 kHz, and 96 kHz. Input locks automatically to the incoming sample rate; out sample rate is software-selectable.
    • Connector: RJ45, dedicated solely to the audio-over-IP connection.
  • Digital Sync Input
    • Configuration: Used for synchronization of either or both AES3 signals to an external reference provided at this input.
    • Sampling Rate: 32 kHz, 44.1 kHz, 48 kHz, 88.2 kHz, and 96 kHz, automatically selected.
    • Connector: XLR-type, female, EMI-suppressed. Pin 1 chassis ground, Pins 2 and 3 transformer balanced and floating, 110Ω impedance.
    • Filtering: RFI filtered.
  • Wordclock/10 MHz Sync Reference Input
    • Configuration: Accepts 1x wordclock or 10 MHz reference signals, automatically selected. The DSP master clock can be phase-locked to these signals, which in turn phase-locks the 19 kHz pilot tone frequency, facilitating singe-frequency network operation. The digital output sample frequency can also be locked to these signals.
    • Level: Unit will lock to 1x wordclock and 10 MHz squarewaves and sinewaves having a peak value of 0.5 V to 5.0 V.
    • Connector: BNC female, grounded to chassis, non-terminating to allow reference signals to be looped through via an external BNC “tee” connector (not supplied).
  • Composite Baseband Outputs
    • Number of Outputs: 2 x analog; 1 x AES3 (MPX hardware only)
    • Subcarrier Modulation Mode: Standard double sideband mode or compatible single sideband/vestigial sideband mode with SSB/VSB crossover at 150 Hz. SSB/VSB mode adds approximately 12 ms of delay to the composite output signal.
    • Configuration: Two outputs, each with an independent software-controlled output level control, output amplifier and connector.
    • Source Impedance: 0Ω voltage source or 75Ω, jumper-selectable. Single-ended, floating over chassis ground.
    • Load Impedance: 37Ω or greater. Termination not required or recommended.
    • Maximum Output Level: +12.0 dBu (8.72 Vp-p).
    • Minimum Output Level: –12 dBu (0.55 Vp-p) for 0.5 dB adjustment resolution.
    • Pilot Level: Adjustable from 6.0% to 12.0%, software controlled.
    • Pilot Stability: 19 kHz, ±0.5 Hz (10 degrees to 40 degrees C).
    • D/A Conversion: 24-bit
    • Signal-to-Noise Ratio: <= 85 dB (Bypass mode, de-emphasized, 20 Hz - 15 kHz band- width, referenced to 100% modulation, unweighted).
    • Distortion: <= 0.02% THD (Bypass mode, de-emphasized, 20 Hz - 15 kHz bandwidth, referenced to 100% modulation, unweighted).
    • Stereo Separation (analog outputs): At 100% modulation = 3.5Vp-p, > 60 dB, 30 Hz - 15 kHz. At 100% modulation = 1.0 - 8.0 Vp-p, > 55 dB, 30 Hz - 15 kHz.
    • Crosstalk-Linear: <= –80 dB, main channel to sub-channel or sub-channel to main channel (referenced to 100% modulation).
    • Crosstalk-Non-Linear: <= –80 dB, main channel to sub-channel or sub-channel to main channel (referenced to 100% modulation).
    • 38 kHz Suppression: > = 70 dB (referenced to 100% modulation).
    • 76 kHz & Sideband Suppression: > = 80 dB (referenced to 100% modulation).
    • Pilot Protection: 60 dB relative to 9% pilot injection, ±250 Hz (up to 2 dB composite processing drive).
    • Subcarrier Protection (60-100 kHz): > = 70 dB (referenced to 100% modulation; with up to 2 dB composite limiting drive; measured with 800 line FFT analyzer using “maximum peak hold ” display).
    • 57 kHz (RDS/RBDS) Protection: 50 dB relative to 4% subcarrier injection, ±2.0 kHz (up to 2 dB composite processing drive)
  • Analog composite outputs.
    • Connectors: Two BNC, floating over chassis ground, EMI suppressed.
    • Maximum Load Capacitance: 0.047µF (0Ω source impedance). Maximum cable length of 100 feet / 30 meters RG–58A/U.
    • Filtering: RFI filtered.
  • AES3 Composite Output
    • Connector: One XLR-type, appearing on breakout cable
    • Sample Frequency: 192 kHz
    • Extension to Interim Industry Standard: The composite baseband is internally sampled at 384 kHz and alternate samples are placed on the left and right audio channels. With compatible receiving hardware, this allo